History Bratislava Slovakia
History Bratislava Slovakia: Bratislava is the capital of the country Slovakia and it is the largest city in Slovakia. It is found in the South Western Region of Slovakia along the sides of the River Danube and the left side of the River Morava. It is found along the borders of both Hungary and Austria making it the lone national capital found along the borders of two countries.
Its history runs back to people of many nations with different cultures which are; Germans, Czechs, Croats, Austrians, Jews, Slovaks, and Serbs. This city was the Kingdom of Hungary’s Site for Coronations as well as its Center of Legislation as of 1536 to 1783 and has served as a home to most of the prominent historical figures from Slovakia, Hungary, and Germany.
The Political, Social and Cultural centers in Slovakia are found in Bratislava. This beautiful city also serves as a seat to the President of Slovakia, the Slovak Parliament, and the Executive of Slovakia. There are also numerous universities, museums, theaters, galleries, and other significant and educational institutions in the city. Most of the large enterprises and headquarters of financial institutions in Slovakia are found in Bratislava.
Bratislava is ranked as the eighth best cities for freelancers to lodge in as it has a fast and reliable internet connection with low tax rates. Bratislava was ranked the third city in terms of riches in 2017 by the European Union in 2017 following the cities of Hamburg and Luxemburg.
Origin of Bratislava
The present-day name of the city was adopted in 1919. Before, it was known as “Pressburg” (German name) in English. This is due to the fact that Austrian and German speakers prevailed in the city. Pressburg is the name from which its Slovak name “Prešporok” and Czech name “Prešpurk” come from.
The city’s name in Hungarian “Pozsony” was derived from the name of the city’s first Governor or Captain of the Castle “Poson”. It is not clear as to where the name comes from whether it is gotten from “Pos” in Czech or “Poscho” in German which is his personal names. Those who speak Hungarian still use “Pozsony”.
The ancient settlement Braslav’s castle or “Brezalauspurc” is attributed sometimes to Bratislava but Brezalaucspurs’s’ real location is debated intellectually. The current date name of the city is thanks to “Pavel Jozef Šafárik’s” misconception of “Braslav” as “Bratislav” in his study of ancient sources. He, therefore, created the name “Břetislaw” later on called “Bratislav”
The name “Wilsonov or “Wilsonstadt” (from American President Woodrow Wilson) was suggested by some American Slovaks during the 1918 – 1919 uprising. This was due to the fact that he was in support of national self-determination. “Bratislava which was only used by specific Slovak Patriots became legitimate on March 1919.
Some other names used in the past to refer to this city are; Greek: Ιστρόπολις Istropolis (which stands for “Danube City”, used in Latin as well), Czech: Prešpurk, Italian: Presburgo, Romanian: Pojon, Serbo-Croatian: Požun / Пожун, Latin: Posonium and French: Presbourg.
The Latin forms in earlier manuscripts Bratislava, Wratislavia are usually mistaken for Bratislava meanwhile they refer to Wroclaw in Poland.
History of Bratislava
Around 5000 BCE in the New Stone Age era, the area got its first stable settlement which started with the Linear Pottery Culture. The first symbolic settlement, a fortified town known as an oppidum was founded by the Celtic Boii around 200 BC. They as well produced silver coins known as Biatec.
Between the 1st to the 4th Century AD, the area was under the control of the Romans and was incorporated into the Danubian Limes which was a border defense system. Grape cultivation was introduced by the Romans and they started a culture of winemaking which still exists until the present date.
During the Migration Period which was between the 5th and 6th centuries, the Slavs came to the area from the East. The Native Slavic tribes rebelled against the oppression by the Avars and established the Samo’s Empire (623-658) which was the Slavic’s first political body. Brezalauspurc and Devín (Dowina), were both castles at Bratislava and were significant centers of the Slavic states: the Principality of Nitra and Great Moravia respectively in the 9th Century. The recognition of the two castles built in Great Moravia has been argued upon by philosophers because of the languages spoken in the city and due to the absence of concrete archeological proof.
Brezalauspurc was first recorded in writing as a settlement in the year 907 which relates to the “Battle of Pressburg” in which the Hungarians conquered a Bavarian army. It is related to the collapse of Great Moravia which was already crippled by internal dissolution and under siege by the Hungarians. There is no specific location of this battle but there are some explanations which say it occurred West of the Lake Balaton.
The territory of Pressburg (which was later known as Pozsony County) and was integrated as part of Hungary (The Kingdom of Hungary from the year 1000) in the 10th century. It, later on, became a major administrative and economic center at the borders of the kingdom. Due to its strategic positioning, the site was always a target for attacks and battles, but it also fostered economic development and increased its political status. The Hungarian King Andrew III gave it first known “town privileges” in 1291and it was declared as a free royal town in 1405 by King Sigismund. He also authorized this town to have its own “coat of arms” in 1436.
The Kingdom of Hungary later fell at the hands of the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Mohács in 1526. Pressburg was attacked and destroyed by the Turks but they failed to conquer this city. The city was labeled the new Hungarian capital in 1536 due to the advancement of Ottomans into Hungarian territory. It was the incorporated into the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and this marked the beginning of a new age. It then became a Coronation Town and the Seat of Kings. Archbishops (1543), the nobility and all the main offices and organizations. Eleven Hungarian Queens and Kings were coronated at St. Martins Cathedral. During the 17th Century, there were many uprisings against Habsburg, wars fought against the Turks, floods, plagues and other disasters which led to a fall in the number of people in the city.
During the reign of Queen Maria Theresa in the 18th Century, Pressburg blossomed and became the most significant and largest town in Hungary. The population tripled; there were also a number of new mansions, monasteries, and the building of streets. It became the center of cultural and social life in the region. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart held a concert in the Pálffy Palace in 1762. There was also a show by Joseph Hayden in 1784 at the Grassalkovic Palace. Ludwig Van Beethoven also visited the Keglević Palace in 1796.
The value of the city fell under the reign of Joseph II, Maria Theresa’s son, especially after the crown jewels, were taken in 1783 to Vienna in order to improve the bond between Hungary and Austria. A large number of central offices were also moved to Buda and a large portion of the nobles soon followed. It was here that the first newspapers in Slovak and Hungarian were published. They were the “Magyar hírmondó” published in 1780, and “Presspurske Nowiny” published in 1783. During the 18th century, the city then became a center for the Slovak National Movement.
The history of the city in the 19th century had a close relationship with the major events in Europe at the time. The Austrian and the Germans signed the Peace of Pressburg here in 1805. The Theben Castle was destroyed by Napoleon’s French Troops when they invaded the city in1809. The Hungarian National Learned Society was also founded in Pressburg making use of a donation given by István Széchenyi in 1825. Hungarian was declared the official language in Public Administration, Legislation, and Education by the regime in the city in 1843.
To react to the Revolutions of 1848, Ferdinand V signed the alleged April laws which had the annulment of Serfdom included in them at the Primates Palace. The city then chose to join the revolutionary Hungarian part but was seized by the Austrians in December of 1848.
In the 19th century There was a massive boost of the Industrial sector. In the mid-eighteen century, they built the first ever horse-drawn railway in the Kingdom of Hungary from Pressburg to Szentgyörgy Svätý Jur. In 1848, there was a railroad line going to Vienna and another railroad line opened which went to Pest in 1850 making use of steam locomotives. There was also the creation of Financial, Industrial, and other bodies, for example, the first bank in present-day Slovakia was founded in 1842. The first permanent bridge in the city was built over the Danube in 1891.
The City had a population that was composed of 42% ethnic Germans, 15% Slovaks and 41% Hungarians before the First World War according to the 1910 census. The city was incorporated into the new state of Czechoslovakia after the First World War on October 28th, 1918 despite the unwillingness of its representatives. The German and Hungarian masses which were the majority tried to stop the city from being annexed by Czechoslovakia declaring it a free city. That notwithstanding, the Czechoslovak Army settled in the city on January 1st, 1919 and incorporate it into Czechoslovakia. It then became the seat of the Slovaks political organizations and later on became the capital of Slovakia on the 4th of February. The Hungarian and German masses started to protest on the 12th of February 1919 against the occupation of the city by the Czechoslovaks but the Czechoslovak Army opened fire on unarmed demonstrators.
The name Bratislava was first accepted officially on March 27, 1919. Many Hungarians were driven out or fled from the city because they had no protection as the Hungarian army left the city. The Czechs and Slovaks moved into Bratislava. The administering of education in German and Hungarian reduced drastically in the city. According to the Czechoslovakian census, there was a fall in the Hungarian population to 15.8% in 1930.
Nazi Germany colonized neighboring Austria in the Anschluss in 1938 and later in the same year, the also annexed Petržalka and Devín boroughs which were still separate from Bratislava under the claim of ethnicity as there were many Germans found in those two states. Bratislava was acclaimed as the capital of the first Independent Slovak Republic on the 14th of March 1939 but soon fell under Nazi control. The Newly created Slovak Government worked together with the Germans to deport roughly 15,000 Jews in Bratislava in the years 1941-1942 and 1944-1945. This Jews were then transported to Concentration Camps where most of them died or were killed before the war ended.
In 1944, the city of Bratislava was besieged by the Allies and occupied by the German Army. It was finally taken by the army of the Soviet 2nd Union Front on April 4th, 1945. Most of the native Germans in Bratislava were aided by the German authorities to escape the city after the Second World War. Few of them came back after the war but were driven out of the city without their property as stipulated by the Beneš decrees which were part of a rampant expulsion of native Germans from Eastern Europe.
After the Communism Party of Czechoslovakia took power in February 1948, the city was integrated as part of the Eastern Bloc. The city colonized new areas and the population of the city increased drastically i.e. 90% Slovak. There was the construction of large residential area with high-rise prefabricated panels like the ones in the Petržalka district were constructed. There was the construction of monumental buildings by the Communist government with the examples of the Slovak Radio headquarters and the “Slovenského národného povstania” bridge.
The Warsaw Pact army inhabited the city after the failure of Czechoslovaks in their attempt to liberalize the Communist regime in the year 1968. It was later on named as the capital of the Slovak Socialist Republic which was one of the two states of federal Czechoslovakia.
Those not in favor of the Communist government its downfall with the Candle Demonstration in 1988 and amongst the first city in which the anti-Communist Velvet Revolution in 1989 started in.
Following the Velvet Divorce, the city was then proclaimed the capital of the newly formed Slovak Republic in the year 1993. The economy was boosted and flourished in the 1990s and early 21st century due to foreign investment. The city also played host to numerous significant and political events.
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